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Anatomy Tutorial: the Brainstem - Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain

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\({\bf{Basic~Functions:}}\) relays information between the brain and spinal cord. controls autonomic processes. divided into three groups of nuclei with various sub-functions. 1. relay stations/processing centers > gracile nucleus + cuneate nucleus: carry information to thalamus > solitary nucleus: receives information from CNS > olivary nucleus: carry information from spinal cord, cerebral cortex, diencephalon, brainstem, to the cerebral cortex 2. nuclei of cranial nerves 3. autonomic nuclei > reflex centers: take info from cranial nerves, cerebral cortex, diancephalon, brainstem, and control output in the cardiovascular and respiratory rhythmicity centers

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\({\bf{Pons:}}\) - extends from the medulla oblongata to mesencephalon - separated from the cerebellum by the 4th ventricle - attached to cerebellum via cerebellar peduncles like the medulla, also contains various nuclei groups > sensory and motor nuclei for cranial nerves > nuclei for respiratory centers that act on the respiratory rhythmicity center in the medulla oblongata > ascending, descending, transverse tracts; allow information to be transmitted between cerebellum hemispheres |dw:1539668131456:dw|

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\({\bf{Midbrain (mesencephalon):}}\) > roof/tectum: contains corpora quadrigemina - superior colliculi: receive visual info from thalamus - inferior colliculi: receive auditory info from medulla oblongata > motor nuclei of reticular formation - red: many blood vessels. proceses information form cerebellum/cerebrum, controls involuntary motor commands - substantia nigra: controls motor output of basal nuclei > cerebral peduncles: ascending, descending, transverse fibers, transmits info for motor commands from the cerebrum

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Adapted from Human Anatomy, Martini, et. al. 9th edition

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