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Anatomy Tutorial: The Diancephalon - Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus

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|dw:1539670246288:dw| \({\bf{Epithalamus:}}\) - located on the roof of third ventricle - contains pineal gland, secretes melatonin - extends into the lateral ventricle \({\bf{Thalamus:}}\) right and left halves - form the walls of the diancephalon - integration/relay centers for sensorimotor paths - ascending tracts synapse in the thalamus before moving to cerebrum/brainstem - coordinates some motor activities 5 groups of thalamic nulcei 1. anterior group - part of limbic system - emotions, memory, learning 2. medial group - connect basal nuclei and emotion centers to the prefrontal cortex - relay information from thalamus to the frontal lobes 3. ventral group - relay sensory information (touch, pain, temp, proprioception, etc.) from cerebrum/cerebellum to cerebral cortex 4. posterior group - divided into pulvinar and lateral/medial geniculate nuclei > pulvinar: carries sensory info to cerebral cortex > lateral geniculate: transmit visual information to visual cortex > medial geniculate: transmit auditory information to auditory cortex 5. lateral group - regulate emotion and sensory integration

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\({\bf{Hypothalamus:}}\) - forms floor of third ventricle - runs from optic chiasm to mamillary bodies - infundibulum connects hypothalamus to pituitary gland - tuberal area between infundibulum and mamillary bodies: control the pituitary gland functions of hypothalamus: - receive information from cerebrum/brainstem/spinal cord - respond to CSF changes/blood circulation changes - muscle contractions esp. in response to pain/pleasure - autonomic processes like digestion, heart rate regulation, etc. - control of nervous/endocrine system functions through pituitary gland - emotions/behavioral drives - ANS and SNS functions - regulation of body temperature (pre-optic area) and circadian rhythms (suprachiasmatic nucleus)

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Adapted from Human Anatomy, Martini, et. al. 9th edition

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