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Anatomy Tutorial: The Adrenal Glands

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\({\bf{Overview:}}\) |dw:1542515033964:dw| > at the superior poles of kidneys, attached by fibrous capsule > project into the peritoneal cavity, covered by peritoneum > vascular; supplied by renal artery, phrenic artery, aorta, drained by adrenal veins > adrenal cortex: secretes steroids > adrenal medulla: secretes catecholamines \({\bf{Adrenal~Cortex:}}\) > makes corticosteroids > smooth ER for synthesis of lipid-based steroids three layers, going from outer to inner: > zona glomerulosa: produces mineralocorticoids > zona fasciculata: produces glucocorticoids > zona reticularis: secretes androgens

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\({\bf{Zona~Glomerulosa:}}\) > densely packed endocrine cells > 15% of the entire adrenal cortex > produce mineralocoticoids: steroids that change elecrolyte composition - aldosterone: retains sodium ions and eliminate potassium ions - spurred by decreasing sodium levels in blood, increasing potassium levels, and angiotensin II \({\bf{Zona~Fasciculata:}}\) > 80% of the cortex > larger cells, more lipid-based > sinusoids w/ fenestrations > spurred by ACTH production from pituitary gland > produces glucocorticoids: steroids that change glucose metabolism - cortisol - corticosterone which increase glucose + glycogen production \({\bf{Zona~Reticularis:}}\) > 5% of the cortex > folded network supplied by capillaries > makes androgens, steroids that increase muscle mass, blood cell production, and pubic hair esp. in women (since men already have androgens supplied by testes)

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\({\bf{Adrenal~Medulla:}}\) > innervated by SNS > cells are called chromaffin cells > vascular > secretes catecholamines - epinephrine (adrenaline): higher amounts than norepinephrine; increase cellular metabolism, muscle strength, endurance - norepinephrine: similar effect to andrenaline > longer lasting than other effects by the SNS

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Adapted from Human Anatomy, Martini, et. al. 9th edition

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