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Anatomy Tutorial: Endocrine Functions of Other Organs

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\({\bf{Kidneys~and~Heart:}}\) regulation of blood pressure + volume > kidneys: produce erythropoetin + calcitrol - renin: converts angiotensin to angiotensin I --> angiotensin II conversion in capillaries --> increases secretion of aldosterone via adrenal cortex - erythropoetin: increases RBC production, increasing oxygen + blood volume - calcitrol: secreted in response to parathyroid; cholecalciferol dependent. increases calcium and phosphate absorption in GI tract - atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP): opposite effect of angiotensin II --> increase sodium loss, water loss, and decrease renin, ADH, aldosterone secretion --> reduces blood volume + BP

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\({\bf{Pancreas~and~Digestive~System:}}\) > pancreas: endocrine and exocrine functions (serous gland + pancreatic islets) - secretes digestive fluid - surrounded by fenestrated capillaries - supplied by pancreaticduodenal + pancreatic arteries, drained by hepatic portal vein - islets are innervated by ANS four types of pancreatic cells: - alpha cells: make glucagon - beta cells: make insulin - delta cells: make somatostatin: inhibits glucagon and insulin, slows food absorption - F cells: produce pancreatic polypeptide: inhibits gallblader and pancreatic enzymes

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\({\bf{Reproductive~System:}}\) male: testes > interstitial cells --> make androgens esp testosterone - promotes sperm production - maintains male secretory glands - secondary sexual characteristics - muscle growth > nurse cells --> support differentiation/maturation of sperm through inhibin secretion --> inhibits FSH secretion female: ovaries > follicular cells --> make estrogen + inhibin - oocytes mature in follicles, via FSH - estrogens/estradiol spur maturation of oocyte and uterine lining - FSH spurs inhibin production, decreasing FSH levels - after ovulation, follicular cells form corpus luteum that makes estrogens + progestins --> progesterone --> moves oocyte down the uterine tube

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\({\bf{Pineal~Gland:}}\) > part of epithalamus > pinealocytes: secrete melatonin -> slows maturation of sperm, oocytes, reproductive organs, by inhibiting FSH and LH, also helps control the day/night sleep cycle, also protects CNS from free radicals > intersticial cells: similar to neuroglia

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Adapted from Human Anatomy, Martini, et. al. 9th edition

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