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Anatomy Tutorial: General Senses

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|dw:1540087009124:dw| \({\bf{Receptor~Terminology:}}\) - free nerve endings: the dendrites of sensory neurons - receptor sensitivity: control over the type of stimulus received and the response generated - receptive field: area monitored by a single receptor cell - sensory coding: provides information about the strength, duration, movement, and variation of stimulus - tonic receptors: sensory neurons that are always active - phasic receptors: sensory neurons that are only active when a change in stimulus is detected - adapation: the reduction in sensitivity to a stimulus despite the stimulus remaining constant > peripheral adaptation: receptor/sensory neuron decreases in activity due to synpatic fatigue > chromic adaptation: decreasing the amount of information coming to CNS, resulting in a decrease in conscious awareness of the stimulus

3 weeks ago
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\({\bf{General~Sense~Receptors:}}\) three broad sub-types: - exteroceptors (give information about the environment) - proprioceptors: (give information about body position) - chemoreceptors (give information about changes in body fluid/chemical composition) 4 specific classifications: - nocioceptors: pain receptors > free nerve endings w/ large receptive fields > three general types based on what they detect: temperature receptors, physical damage receptors, dissolved chemical receptors fast pain vs slow pain: both caused by the same types of injuries (deep cuts/injuries) but fast pain generally subsides when the injury heals but slow pain starts later and persists later. slow pain activates reticular formation and thalamus "referred pain": tendency for pain to feel like it comes from areas that are not directly affected by the injury but share the same innervation - thermoreceptors: two types, cold and warm. also free nerve endings. > temperature sensations: conducted on spinothalamic tracts and sent to reticular formation, thalamus, primary somatosensory cortex > phasic will be going over thermoreceptors in the next post b/c it's very detailed

3 weeks ago
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* meant to say mechanoreceptors not thermoreceptors >_> god i'm tired \({\bf{Mechanoreceptors:}}\) 3 types, tactile, baroceptors, and priopioceptors > tactile: two types, encapsulated and unencapsulated. can range from free nerve endings to specialized complexes, can be fine touch and pressure, or crude touch and pressure - unencapsulated: free nerve endings, ex: root hair plexus and merkel cells - encapsulated: large, oval, w/ coiled dendrites > encapsulated tactile mechanoreceptors can be further sub-divided into corpuscles - tactile: highyl developed for touch, movement, vibrations. phasic. - bulbous: non-adaptive, tonic, detect pressure and distortion, located in dermis - lamellar corpuscles: concentric layers of dendritic processes, also found in the dermis, but are adaptive and detect deep pressure, pulsing, and vibrating sensations \({\bf{Baroreceptors:}}\) free nerve endings, made of branches in elastic organ tissue, respond quickly via distortions of the branches \({\bf{Proprioceptors:}}\) non-adaptive, ex: muscle spindles (control length of skeletal muscles) and golgi tendon organs (control tension)

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Moon:

Adapted from Human Anatomy, Martini, et. al. 9th edition

3 weeks ago
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