Chemistry
zarkam21:

Help

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

@Vocaloid

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

you'd add up the valence electrons as usual, add 1 more since we have a -1 charge, divide by 2 to get the total # of e' pairs, and arrange them following lewis structure rules

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

give it a shot and i'll step in if you're getting stuck or want a solution check

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

O added a -1 charge to the two o's wiTH A single bond

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

almost nitrogen has a formal charge of 1 here since it normally has 5 valence electrons but only 4 bonds here and 0 lone pairs (5 - 4 - 0) = +1 so you need to add a + to the central nitrogen

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

if you want to double-check yourself in the future, since NO3- has an overall charge of -1, the formal charges need to sum up to -1 if we only put two negative charges on the oxygens, that's an overall formal charge of -2, not -1, so we know we need to add a +1 somewhere

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

FOr this I know the overall charge is -2 but I don't know where to put that

5 months ago
zarkam21:

like at the top

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

notice the formal charges on the single-bond oxygen oxygen has 6 valence electrons. in its current state it has 6 lone electrons and 1 bond, so its formal charge is 6 - 6 - 1 = -1 so each of the single-bonded oxygens gets a -1 formal charge making the overall formal charge -2

5 months ago
zarkam21:

What is the formal charge on each of the atoms? Enter the formal charges in the same order as the atoms are listed. of HOFO

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

may I see your lewis structure? as far as I know I don't think any of the atoms have formal charges

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

|dw:1540348011551:dw|

5 months ago
zarkam21:

H-O-F-O

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

ah, if they want all single bonds then your solution would be correct

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

B

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

depends on what the structures are

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

whatever structure puts more electrons on the more EN atom, in this case, oxygen, would be the right structure

5 months ago
zarkam21:

These are the hints so I was going off of this

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

That it is better

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

i still need to see what the structures are

5 months ago
zarkam21:

I got it lol thanks though

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

and two dots on the p which I forgot

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

so to get the minus I would put it on the single oxygen right

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yup

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

SO this would be a plus on the middle o

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yes, any other formal charges you can see?

5 months ago
zarkam21:

minus on the single o

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

minus on the single o

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah i messed up before it's supposed to have 2 double bonds not 1

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

otherwise, good, then add the formal charges on oxygen and chlorine

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

so minus on the single o

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah that's it

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

chlorine shouldn't have one I messed up my structure before whoops

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

It says its incorrect and I need to check the electrons

5 months ago
kittybasil:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
kittybasil:

Because I see 5 bonds on Chlorine

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

chlorine has an expanded octet and should theoretically be able to take more than 4 bonds but try removing one of the double bonds to give chlorine a +1 FC

5 months ago
zarkam21:

and putting two dots on the one that I make a single bond right

5 months ago
kittybasil:

Well I learned something new about Lewis structures today, thanks Voca

5 months ago
kittybasil:

^^' Okay I'm leaving now so you guys can discuss lol

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah, Cl with 2 single bonds to O, 1 double bond to oxygen, formal charge -1 on the single bond oxygen, and +1 on the chlorine

5 months ago
zarkam21:

Nope :/ still wrong

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

you need -1 on both single bonded oxygens

5 months ago
zarkam21:

Still wrong

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

huh.

5 months ago
zarkam21:

do I add something to the double bonded one maybe

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

no, that one has formal charge 0 so it shouldn't need anything.

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

oh the one you have right now needs an electron pair on chlorine

5 months ago
zarkam21:

Draw the Lewis structures for the NO2− ion. Include all resonance structures.

5 months ago
zarkam21:

what does resonance mean

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

this is something to review but it means you need to draw all possible structures of NO2-

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

|dw:1540350690550:dw| there, this is a better image

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

these are both resonance structures because they're the same compound just with different distributions of charge

5 months ago
zarkam21:

okay so is the structure I did now okay if it is I can make the second one to it

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah just don't forget formal charges if they ask for them

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah that should be it, lmk how it goes

5 months ago
zarkam21:

it was right!

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

would triple bonds be +2?

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

formula for formal charge: valence electrons - (number of bonds) - (number of lone pairs)

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

try to apply it to the first nitrogen

5 months ago
zarkam21:

so 5 ve in n

5 months ago
zarkam21:

6 in o

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yes, keep going

5 months ago
zarkam21:

16

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

16?? where is this coming from

5 months ago
zarkam21:

the n20

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

you don't have to add up the whole molecule; consider each atom individually

5 months ago
zarkam21:

oh okay then 10

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

for the first nitrogen what is valence electrons - (number of bonds) - (number of lone pairs)

5 months ago
zarkam21:

10-2-0=8

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

nitrogen has 5 valence electrons the nitrogen has 2 bonds and 4 lone pair electrons so 5 - 2 - 4

5 months ago
zarkam21:

-1

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yes try to apply this logic to the other atoms

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

for clarity's sake *** valence electrons - (number of bonds) - (number of lone pair electrons) ***

5 months ago
zarkam21:

okay so 5-2-4 again ? :S

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

for the central nitrogen you have valence electrons = 5 4 bonds 0 lone pair electrons.

5 months ago
zarkam21:

1

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good try to see what you get for oxygen

5 months ago
zarkam21:

6-4?

5 months ago
zarkam21:

-0

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

you also have 2 bonds

5 months ago
zarkam21:

6-2-0=4

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

6 valence electrons 2 bonds 4 lone electrons

5 months ago
zarkam21:

0

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

so -1 , +1 , 0 for structure A see what you get for the others

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

check C again

5 months ago
zarkam21:

0 and -1 switched

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

first nitrogen 5 valence 1 bond 6 lone electrons

5 months ago
zarkam21:

-2

5 months ago
zarkam21:

0

5 months ago
zarkam21:

for the next

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good central nitrogen is +1 as you stated check the oxygen now

5 months ago
zarkam21:

+1

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

good so C = -2, +1 +1

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
zarkam21:

A

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

not quite nitrogen is less electronegative so it will want a higher formal charge oxygen will want a lower formal charge

5 months ago
zarkam21:

c

5 months ago
zarkam21:

No B

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

on structure B, you have -1 +1 0 structure C = 0, +1, -1 C puts the +1 on the nitrogen and the -1 on the oxygen which is preferable to structure B

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

yeah try re-doing them from the top for each of the single bond O's you have 6 valence electrons 6 lone electrons 1 bond

5 months ago
zarkam21:

double bond 0 has +1and n has 0?

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

single bond O's: 6 - 6 - 1 double bond O's: 6 valence - 2 bonds - 4 lone electrons nitrogen: 5 valence electrons - 1 bond - 0 lone electrons

5 months ago
zarkam21:

nitrogen: 5 valence electrons - 1 bond - 0 lone electrons is nt an option for 4

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

*4 bonds

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

5 valence electrons - 4 bond - 0 lone electrons

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

you need to swap them carbon always follows octet; boron and phosphorus violate the octet rule (boron only makes 3 bonds whereas phosphorus can make more than 4)

5 months ago
zarkam21:

co or cs

5 months ago
zarkam21:

co right

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

both of them have carbon as the central atom and thus follow the octet rule

5 months ago
zarkam21:

5 months ago
Vocaloid:

uh as far as I know you'd just add up the oxygen formal charges and divide by 4

5 months ago