Moon:

MCAT Tutorial: Fatty Acid Metabolism & Storage

3 months ago
Moon:

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3 months ago
Moon:

\({\bf{Basic~Properties:}}\) - long carbon chains with high reducing potential. - unsaturated fats have lower reducing potential than saturated due to the presence of C=C bonds which contain fewer electrons - unsaturated fats store less energy \({\bf{Metabolism:}}\) two main methods: beta-oxidation and ketogenesis Beta-Oxidation: - fatty acids --> acetyl-CoA - occurs ~the same time with gluceoneogenesis (fasting state) - fatty acids are carried by lipoproteins into the bloodstream for use by organs - the process of beta-oxidation occurs in mitochondria steps: - conversion to acyl-CoA by using 1 ATP - transfer to mitochondrial matrix and conversion to acetyl-CoA (notice the difference between acyl and acetyl) - also makes NADH and FADH2 - acetyl-CoA used in citric acid cycle - glycerol backbone also used as intermediate in glycolysis Ketogenesis: - occurs in liver - produces ketone bodies: acetone, acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxylbutyrate - each ketone body has C=O group that allows them to diffuse through membranes while still being uncharged - provides alternative energy source - not substrates for gluconeogenesis - ketone bodies can be interconverted between acetyl-CoA and ketone bodies to provide for the citric acid cycle, or energy as needed

3 months ago
Moon:

\({\bf{Storage~and~Release:}}\) - storage: carried by lipoproteins and exocytosed as needed - lipids are stored as tryglycerides which can be broken down into fatty acids by lipase - chylomicron: a type of lipoprotein produced by the liver; has higher lipid: protein ratio - liver converts chylomicrons to VLDLs and HDLs > VLDLs move lipids through the bodyo > HDLs transport "stray" fatty acids to the liver - liver can also convert acetyl-CoA to fatty acids in cytosol (not mitochondria)

3 months ago
Moon:

Anyway, that's the end of my tutorial, I hope it was a helpful resource. Source material is the 9th Edition ExamKracker's Biology 1 Prep book for the new MCAT

3 months ago
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